THE CORPORATION CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES
[Batas Pambansa Blg. 68]
Section 46. Adoption of by-laws. – Every corporation formed under this Code must, within one (1) month after receipt of official notice of the issuance of its certificate of incorporation by the Securities and Exchange Commission, adopt a code of by-laws for its government not inconsistent with this Code. For the adoption of by-laws by the corporation the affirmative vote of the stockholders representing at least a majority of the outstanding capital stock, or of at least a majority of the members in case of non-stock corporations, shall be necessary. The by-laws shall be signed by the stockholders or members voting for them and shall be kept in the principal office of the corporation, subject to the inspection of the stockholders or members during office hours. A copy thereof, duly certified to by a majority of the directors or trustees countersigned by the secretary of the corporation, shall be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission which shall be attached to the original articles of incorporation.
Notwithstanding the provisions of the preceding paragraph, by-laws may be adopted and filed prior to incorporation; in such case, such by-laws shall be approved and signed by all the incorporators and submitted to the Securities and Exchange Commission, together with the articles of incorporation.
In all cases, by-laws shall be effective only upon the issuance by the Securities and Exchange Commission of a certification that the by-laws are not inconsistent with this Code.
The Securities and Exchange Commission shall not accept for filing the by-laws or any amendment thereto of any bank, banking institution, building and loan association, trust company, insurance company, public utility, educational institution or other special corporations governed by special laws, unless accompanied by a certificate of the appropriate government agency to the effect that such by-laws or amendments are in accordance with law. (20a)
Section 47. Contents of by-laws. – Subject to the provisions of the Constitution, this Code, other special laws, and the articles of incorporation, a private corporation may provide in its by-laws for:
1. The time, place and manner of calling and conducting regular or special meetings of the directors or trustees;
2. The time and manner of calling and conducting regular or special meetings of the stockholders or members;
3. The required quorum in meetings of stockholders or members and the manner of voting therein;
4. The form for proxies of stockholders and members and the manner of voting them;
5. The qualifications, duties and compensation of directors or trustees, officers and employees;
6. The time for holding the annual election of directors of trustees and the mode or manner of giving notice thereof;
7. The manner of election or appointment and the term of office of all officers other than directors or trustees;
8. The penalties for violation of the by-laws;
9. In the case of stock corporations, the manner of issuing stock certificates; and
10. Such other matters as may be necessary for the proper or convenient transaction of its corporate business and affairs. (21a)
Section 48. Amendments to by-laws. – The board of directors or trustees, by a majority vote thereof, and the owners of at least a majority of the outstanding capital stock, or at least a majority of the members of a non-stock corporation, at a regular or special meeting duly called for the purpose, may amend or repeal any by-laws or adopt new by-laws. The owners of two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock or two-thirds (2/3) of the members in a non-stock corporation may delegate to the board of directors or trustees the power to amend or repeal any by-laws or adopt new by-laws: Provided, That any power delegated to the board of directors or trustees to amend or repeal any by-laws or adopt new by-laws shall be considered as revoked whenever stockholders owning or representing a majority of the outstanding capital stock or a majority of the members in non-stock corporations, shall so vote at a regular or special meeting.
Whenever any amendment or new by-laws are adopted, such amendment or new by-laws shall be attached to the original by-laws in the office of the corporation, and a copy thereof, duly certified under oath by the corporate secretary and a majority of the directors or trustees, shall be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission the same to be attached to the original articles of incorporation and original by-laws.
The amended or new by-laws shall only be effective upon the issuance by the Securities and Exchange Commission of a certification that the same are not inconsistent with this Code. (22a and 23a)
The Corporation Code of the Philippines
TITLE I General Provisions
TITLE II Incorporation and Organization of Private Corporations
TITLE III Board of Directors Trustees Officers
TITLE IV Powers of Corporations
TITLE V By Laws
TITLE VI Meetings
TITLE VII Stocks and Stockholders
TITLE VIII Corporate Books and Records
TITLE IX Merger and Consolidation
TITLE X Appraisal Right
TITLE XI Non-Stock Corporations
TITLE XII Close Corporations
TITLE XIII Special Corporations
TITLE XIV Dissolution
TITLE XV Foreign Corporations
TITLE XVI Miscellaneous Provisions